Category Archives: Construction

Hooks and Eyes: A better way

I have been super busy as of late and so it’s been a long while since I’ve posted.  I am working on a much longer patterning and construction post, but in the meantime, I thought I could do a quickie post.  Something that I have seen a lot of lately is the application of hooks and eyes on the outside of the lining fabric.  I did it myself that way for a long time, but there is a cleaner way to do it…and it is period.

Here is a picture of the way I used to apply hooks and eyes.  As wp-1461291526697.jpgyou can see, I threw them on after I had already applied the lining.  While this is a perfectly acceptable and functional option, one day I happened across a picture in Patterns of Fashion (Janet Arnold, PoF 1, ill. 368 and 369, pg. 51) that shows a much cleaner way of integrating the closures into the garment.  I had recognized the technique as one that is used in modern couture clothing construction, so I got really excited when I realized that it went back as far as at least the PoF garment.  Since then, I’ve used this method on my own garb.  Following are the steps I use to recreate the look.

Step one:

wp-1461290854911.jpgThe  hooks and eyes are sewn onto the garment after the interfacing and reinforcement have been applied up to the center front.  These closures go in as the last step before the lining is applied, so make sure all the other edges have been finished.  They will be applied to the seam allowance before it is folded over and stitched down.  I am using modern purchased hooks and eyes here.  Place the hooks and eyes facing the Center Front fold (on the picture it is marked with the white stitching) and stitch them down.  The hooks are stitched through the two bottom loops and at the top of the hook.  The eyes are also stitched through the bottom two looks, as well as at top sides of the large loop.

Step Two:

Fold over the seam allowance at the center front and stitch the edge wp-1461290814195.jpgto the interfacing  using a catchstitch, fell stitch or whipstitch.  Since this is outerwear, the front closure isn’t going to be under much strain, so I decided to use a catchstitch.  If this is for a self supporting dress, or will be under pressure, a whipstitch or even a running stitch or prickstitch would be more appropriate.

Step Three:

Nwp-1461290825063.jpgow you will apply your lining.  Fold over the edge and slip it under the hook and stitch it down.  I prefer to use a fell stitch when putting in my linings.  I really like the way it looks and it is documentable as a period imag1014.jpgmethod .  Repeat with the eyes by placing the fold of the lining over the bottom loops of the eyes.  But, don’t go over the loop or you won’t be able to close it.

And that’s it.  It makes for a very clean and lovely finish that you can show off to all your friends.  I hope to see more people using this method.

Dress Diary: Building a German Working Class Dress 1580-1600

Nurmeburg 1586 Large  Adelheit German Working Class 1580

Adelheit German Working Class 1580 2   Adelheit German Working Class 1580 3

The Bodice:

The bodice was drafted using the shapes of my current pair of bodies because it fits well and is from the correct time frame.  I made a few changes to make it more appropriate: removed the tabs, raised the neckline and changed the angles of the straps.

Once that was done, I cut out one layer of linen canvas for the interlining, one layer of linen canvas for the lining, one layer of the orange medium weight linen for the fashion fabric, green linen for the guards and yellow linen for the guard piping.

I have been wanting to try out padstitching the layers of the bodice to see what effect they have in regards to stiffening the bodice.

Bodice Back: Padstitching on half only, see how it changes the drape of the fabric.

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Bodice Front Half: The padstitching is smaller and tighter as it rounds closer to the front area in order to give more stiffness.

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The bodice pieces are basted together and sewn on to see how the padstitching is working out.  In the following pictures, the left side is padded and the right side is not.  It seems that it is helping to smooth out the wrinkles at least a bit.  The waist is still a bit long in these pictures as well, so shortening it to my natural waist will help remove more wrinkles.

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Once the bodice was finished being padstiched, I sewed the lacing rings to the interlining layer and finished the edge by catch stitching the edge back to the layer.

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I added a small strip of the canvas to the inside of the outer fabric to add additional stiffening and to alleviate some of the pulling that happens with the tension of the lacing rings.  The strip was first basted to the  edge of the fabric, then folded back and sewn into place.

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The interlining/lining layer was then placed within the lines of the fashion fabric and the edges of the outer layer were double folded over the inner layer and stitched down with a fell stitch.  I attached the side and shoulder seams by placing the right sides together and using a flat fell seam finish.  Finally I attached the guards.

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The Skirt:

The skirt was drafted using a gored method based on the Alcega Tailoring book drafts.  I used a two to one ratio for the waist as I have found that it allows enough to do knife pleats without adding too much fullness. Unfortunately, I forgot to take pictures…but I do plan on doing a post all about patterning skirts in the near future.  I did not line it because I wanted to keep this lightweight and cool.  It was stitched together by placing the right sides together, and sewn using a smallish running stitch.  The seam allowances were finished by folding over and secured with a whip stitch.  The hem was then done using my padded hem method detailed Here.

The guards were cut out as bias strips.  The green was cut as a four inch strip and the yellow was a 1.5 inch strip.  The yellow was folded in half, pressed and then sewn to each edge of the green.  Then I pressed it into a curve before applying it to the skirt.  I stitched it down in the seam line using a small fell stitch. Finally, the skirt top edge was finished by double folding and then attached to the bodice with a whip stitch.

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Building a better skirt: Padded hems

So, for the longest time, when I would build a new dress, the majority of my time was spent on the bodice and the pleating.  By the time I got to the skirt, everything was quick and dirty.  Just cut out a couple widths of fabric the length I needed, sew on the guards, hem and attach.  But, I was never truly happy with how the skirt would hang in the end.  I felt like I had to much fabric at the waist and the hang just didn’t jive with period portraiture.  So, I started investigating.  The first thing I realized was that most skirts in period seem to be cut circular or gored.  With the exception of one (that I have come across), all the other extant gowns are cut that way, and period tailor manuals seems to support it as well.  The second thing I noticed, was that the skirts used tailoring methods to create the hem.  That is what I am going to talk about today.

I first noticed the tailored hem in Janet Arnold’s Patterns of Fashion.  She goes into great detail about how the hem of the Eleanor of Toledo gown was constructed (p 41).  The hem is finished with a 8cm bias cut piece of satin facing, of which 3mm was left to show at the bottom. Sandwiched Inside this facing is a piece of wool felt Interfacing 38mm wide.  The diagram is excellent and shows where the stitching is and how wide everything is.  Interfacing in the hem shows up again on page 44 in the woman’s kirtle, this time it is a pink linen.  The dress on page 44 has a bound hem, although there is no mention of interfacing.  Then on page 55, Arnold details  a hemline with interfacing of linen canvas and facing of wool.  Finally the dress on page 56 is stiffened with linen or buckram behind a pink silk taffeta lining.

Then something else came to my mind…the Mary of Hungary gown detailed by here by Cynthia Virtue.  I had always loved the little detail of the darker green strip at the hem, buy I had always assumed it was there to protect the hem, but when I went back and looked again, I was convinced that what we are seeing is a padded hem.  I have tried to find more evidence and information about the hem, but to no avail.  But, the strip at the bottom and the way the folds of the hem fall make me 99% sure that it is a padded hem.
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So, I started experimenting and the difference is huge.  The folds of the hem push out more and the skirt moves beautifully when you walk.  Sure, it takes a little bit longer, but in my book, the extra time is well worth it.  Take a look at this comparison of a skirt without a padded hem and one with.
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So…how do you do it?  It’s pretty easy really.

Step one: Decide on the dimension of your hem facing strip.  I have found that a final height of 1.5 to 2 inches works very well.  Next, decide how much of the facing you want to show at the bottom.  I think anywhere between 1/4-1 inch is a good amount.  Add it all together to get the height of the strips you will cut…and don’t forget seam allowance.  For this particular skirt, I chose to have a 2 inch finished width plus a 1/2 inch (double this amount) showing and 1/2 inch seam allowance.  Since the facing is a wool felt, I decided to eliminate some bulk by not folding over the top edge of the facing.  For fabrics requiring a fold over, make sure to add the hem allowance in.  So, I need to cut out strips of facing the length of my hem and a height of 3 1/2 inches. Now, to figure out the interfacing height, just subtract the amount of the facing that is showing at the bottom from the final facing height.  So, the interfacing will be cut 3 inches in height.  If I had added a seam allowance for the foldover at the top of the hem facing, then I would subtract that as well.
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Step 2: Cut out the facing and the interfacing strips.   I prefer to cut these on the bias as it takes a lot less effort going around the curves of the skirt hem.  For this, I used a blue wool flannel and a natural canvas linen (fabric-store.com IL095).  I have tried scraps of wool felt, flannel and the linen canvas and so far the linen canvas is my favorite.  I cut both out on the bias.  For the facing, the strips will need to be sewn together to make a continuous facing strip and then the seams pressed open.
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Step 3: Stitch the facing strip to the bottom of the skirt.  I typically use a half inch seam allowance.  This is done with a running stitch, or with a straight machine stitch.
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Press the seam allowances upward.  At this point, it is advisable on most fabrics to stitch the seam allowances down with a running stitch or a prick stitch.  Since this fabric seemed to behave and stay in place, I decided to skip this step this time…hopefully I won’t regret it later.
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Step 4: Mark the placement of the fold.  For this one, it is the half inch that I decided in the first step would be showing, so I measure this downward from the seam line and mark it with chalk.  Then, fold the facing up and pin in place.
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You will most likely end up with some wrinkling near the top edge of the facing.  This is because the conical shape of the skirt, and is easily addressed by pressing and shrinking it out with steam while you press the folded edge.

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Step 5: with the facing unfolded, lay in the pieces of interfacing.  I don’t bother to stitch the facing edges together, since they will be enclosed in the facing.  Instead, I just give them a slight overlap.
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They are first pinned in place, then I go through and use tailor basting to hold them in place.

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Step 6: Fold the facing back up into place and stitch down.  For this I used a whip stitch, but you can use any stitch appropriate for a hem.

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Give the hem one more light pressing and you are good to go.

Project: A fabulous smocked shirt for Adelheit

So, before I had to put everything else away in order to focus on my Pentathlon projects (the big A&S competition in Caid), I had started working on a new smocked shirt.  I hadn’t gotten to far, so I am going to document my progress here.

First, a little background is necessary.  To put it simply, Smocking is a manipulation technique where the fabric is gathered and held in place with stitches.  The term itself doesn’t show up until the 19th century. Some argue that the form of smocking that we see in the sixteenth century should be termed pleatwork embroidery since the term smocking covers some techniques that cannot be documented to period.  While it does do a better job of describing the technique, I believe that the term smocking speaks to a larger audience…and it’s a lot shorter.  So, for the sake of understanding and brevity, I choose to used the term smocking.
INSPIRATION
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A review of artwork from the period shows that smocking was very popular in all regions of Germany for a good portion of the sixteenth century.  It can be seen on shirt collars and cuffs as well as the chest area of women’s hemd’s.  The embroidery was usually done with wool or silk thread in white, black, gold, or silver.

The hemd I am making is meant to go with a dress that is based on an illustration of a woman from the Saxon region found in Das Sächsische Stammbuch’ [subtitled as:] ‘Sammlung von Bildnissen sächsischer Fürsten, mit gereimtem Text; aus der Zeit von 1500 – 1546 which is a manuscript with portrait style illustrations, coats of arms and calligraphic rhyming text of the important people of Saxony.  Illustrated by Lucas Cranach and dated to 1546, Stammbuch literally (at least according to google) translates to Stud book and was a listing of important leaders in a region and their family tree.
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The illustration that captured my interest is [195]-95 which is of Hertzog Heinrich and Katerina.  The text is [194]-94.  I would like to translate the text at some point to confirm, but upon preliminary investigations, I believe that this is portraying Catherine Mecklenburg, wife of Duke Henry the Pious (Henry IV) of Saxony.

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Typically, when I am researching a garment that I plan to construct, I do all that I can to stay within the specific region and in a 10 year time frame of the inspiration artwork. I was able to find two additional images relatively quickly, but because many of the portraits from Saxony depict women of the court, the collar is the shirt is obscured by the gold collar necklace. However, these images do serve to show that the collars are pleated and do have surface decoration of some type. The one that interests me the most is the one in the top right corner. More about the decorative details later.

CONSTRUCTION
There are a number of ways to construct a hemd/chemise/shift, but for smocking, I have a preference to a specific type of construction. Luckily, another blogger Katafalk has an incredible tutorial detailing the same method I use. So, insread of re-inventing the wheel, here is a link Hemd Construction. In order to determine the amount of fabric I would need, I did a sample gathered piece and then adjusted the pieces to match the determined amount needed.

This is the hemd all laid out with the the seams sewn and ready for some embellishment.
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I really wanted a special finish to the neck frill, so, drawings inspiration from the extant Sture shirt detailed in Janet Arnold’s patterns of fashion 4, I decided to decorate it with a drawn thread hemstitch. The first step was to complete a narrow rolled hem, then the drawn thread hemstitch was done.
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Then, I decided I wanted a black edging. I tried several techniques, but they just didn’t have the look I wanted, until I came across this braiding technique. Basically, you couch down the inner two threads, then bring the outer two threads to the inside, couch them down, and repeat ad nauseum. The problem is that it is very slow going and awkward.
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Then, at an event I was talking with Whilja of Whilja’s Corner and found out that she had discovered a better way while working on a replica of the shirt. I am going to try her way next. She posted her research and process on her site and it is a great read, and the shirt is breathtaking, I recommend you check it out here

And that is where I am at currently. Watch for more to come.